Electronic warfare (EW)
Modern aircraft flying experience in the areas of local military conflicts clearly demonstrated the urgent need to protect planes and helicopters from SAM missiles of "surface-to-air" class and air-launched guided missiles of "air-to-air" class used by the conflicting parties.
Almost all civil aircrafts are vulnerable to the threat of missile attack, and jamming means for military aircrafts of individual, individual-mutual or collective protection realizing only ranging Doppler jamming principles with high-energy, masking and simulating jamming aren’t always good at individual protection.
This is not only due to considerable development of radar means during the last decades, but also due to deterioration of conceptual basis of jamming means development and combat application, including re-designed on modern element base ones. Moreover, not all aircrafts are equipped with jamming means of individual protection, as they are either problematic in service, require a lot of time for assembly / disassembly and pre-flight preparation, or deteriorate flight characteristics of the aircraft - carrier due to considerable weight and dimensions.
In all regions involved in local military and political conflicts, layered air defense system doesn’t exist, so in most cases when opposition of aviation to air defense means occurs situation close to the "duel" can be observed, t.i. when an aircraft meets one/ two air defense means of the same type. It significantly increases the urgency of development of effective means of individual protection of aircrafts.
Due to the increasing cases of civil passenger liners attacks by SAMs, it’s essential to install individual protective means at civil aircrafts and helicopters.